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Tips to increase your Deep sleep

Just like REM sleep, the amount of deep sleep you need varies from person to person. It will depend on what you did during your day, on your age and other factors. For adults, deep sleep is approximately 15 to 20% of total sleep. Elderly people experience a shorter duration.

Here are so top level tips to achieve high quality and restorative deep sleep.

Sleep Cycles Circular

Get to know your sleep habits

The periods of deep sleep are the most abundant and most regenerative at the beginning of your sleep. So the goal is to fall asleep as quick as possible to spend the most time in deep sleep.

There are a lot of trackers such as the Circular Ring that you can use to know your sleep habits, the evolution of your sleep cycle and compare your nights.

Sleep every day at the same time 

By doing so, it will allow you to program your subconscious and prepare your body for falling asleep. As with everything, it will take time for your body to adapt (a few nights for most people). Once calibrated, your body will naturally warn you every night when it is time to go to bed.

Be smart about what you eat and drink

Your nutrition has a big impact on your sleep quality. Minimizing caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine before sleeping seems logical. But less known, avoid having heavy and late dinner. Sugar and carbohydrates reduce quality of deep sleep. Go for a light dinner, without quick sugars and red meat which are the foods that take the longest time to digest.

Do not eat within four to six hours prior to the time you want to sleep.

Be physically active

The more you exercise, the more your body will have to spend time in deep sleep to regenerate. It has been proven that daily exercise allows people to sleep better and stay in deep sleep longer. Do 20 to 30 minutes of exercise a day. However, exercising just before bed could interfere with your schedule. Try to exercise daily at least three hours before you go to bed.

Write your day

You can keep a daily journal by briefly describing before sleeping what happened during your day. When you write your day down, you make your brain lighter in order to enter Deep sleep faster. This will facilitate the work that is done during your REM sleep and leave more room for your deep sleep.

Avoid blue lights

Turn off the TV, smartphone, tablet, computer at least 2 hours before sleep. Or even better, keep all your electronics outside the bedroom. The light that these devices emit stimulate the brain, suppress the production of melatonin (which encourages to fall asleep), and interfere with your body’s biological clock.

Magnesium and Melatonin intake

Recent studies have shown that taking magnesium and melatonin with a dosage appropriate to your body can increase the duration of Deep sleep. See this with your doctor.

How to track how much Deep sleep you are getting?

You can use your Circular ring to know exactly how much Deep sleep you get each night. The app gives you the details of your sleep cycle including the portion of Deep sleep accordingly to your cycles, but also the amount of Deep sleep in percentage and duration of your total sleep. You can also compare your Deep sleep from night to night to monitor your evolution and compare your last night with your own average to understand your sleep.

Sleep Stages Circular

You can also read our article on Sleep better and fall asleep faster. The tips described there also apply to increase deep sleep.

If you wish to improve your REM Sleep you can also read Tips to increase your REM sleep.

Best practices from a high-performance coach and bio-hacker: Siim Land

WAKING UP WITH ENERGY

Waking up sounds the beginning of the day and you know the importance of a good wake up. You even wrote an e-book called “Waking up Empowered”. Why do you believe it to be so important?

“The way you wake up determines how the rest of the day is going to go. If you start ruminating over negative thoughts or hit the snooze, then you’re telling your brain what kind of a rhythm to follow. On the other hand, if you get up doing something productive such as meditation or making your bed, you’re dragging momentum to your side and everything else gets easier as well.

There’s a reason people use the idiom of stepping out of bed with the wrong foot. Your brain is plastic and always listening to the feedback it receives from your thoughts, emotions, and actions. That’s why I believe in getting quick wins as soon as possible. It can be taking a cold shower, reading a few pages, writing a journal or exercise. Whatever puts you into the flow of things. In any case, train your brain to avoid negativity and procrastination.”

What would be your top tips for a better wake up? How do you personally combat sleep inertia?

“The best tip for a restful wake-up is to wake up naturally without an alarm clock. This way your brain will gradually pull you out of sleep at the lightest stage of sleep and at the end of a sleep cycle. Sleep inertia happens when you get shooked from a deep sleep in the middle of it.

Ideally, you want to not use an alarm clock and stick to a consistent bedtime so your body could develop the habit of waking you up around the same time. If this is not possible, then using specific smart alarm clock or circadian alarm clocks that start calibrating light towards more brightness to mimic the sunrise is also useful.”

What does your routine look like right after waking up?

“After getting clothed I make my bed and go outside to get some fresh air and daylight. This will kickstart the proper circadian rhythm. I may also do some breathing exercises and stretches to get the blood flowing. Then I go inside and start working on my laptop until noon.”

SLEEPING MORE EFFECTIVELY

Do you have any sleep hygiene tips that are easily implemented?

“Use blue-blocking glasses to filter out artificial light in the evening. This protects your circadian rhythms and enables the body to produce melatonin the sleep hormone.”

Can you explain the relationship between sleep on activity and better performances?

“Sleep facilitates recovery and adaptation. Without enough sleep, your body wouldn’t be able to repair itself from both cognitive and physical activities. Poor sleep also decreases reaction time, alertness and mood.”

You also talk about sleep and fat loss. How is that directly affected?

“Sleep improves the body’s metabolic flexibility and insulin sensitivity. Sleep deprivation raises blood sugar and cortisol the stress hormone, which makes it easier to get diabetes and gain weight. Psychologically, short sleep also makes you want to eat more food and you’re less satisfied with it.”

Serotonin and thus Melatonin impact our Circadian rhythms and finding the perfect sleep balance is key for a good night’s sleep and to improve our energy. How can one boost his melatonin/serotonin secretion?

“Light exposure affects melatonin the most. That’s why blue blockers and dimming down the lights in the evening are crucial. Certain foods with some carbs and protein will also promote serotonin, which leads to the creation of melatonin. The best foods for that tend to be poultry, meat, bananas, rice, and cherries.”

We’d then be tempted to take melatonin (or other) supplements. Is it a solution in on the long run? Are there natural supplements out there that offer a better alternative?

“Taking supplements is a quick-fix that doesn’t address the underlying cause. It should be used only in some cases like jet lag or poor sleep and not as a staple. Instead, you should focus more on the light environment, food intake and stress management.”

What would be your main takeaways and pieces of advice for better sleep? Are they any gadgets, products or hacks you can recommend?

“In my own experience, filtering out bright lights in the evening is the most effective strategy for getting better sleep. This way you’ll naturally get sleepier. Tracking your sleep with gadgets will also give you more insight into how well you sleep.”

DIETING: KETO, FASTING, OMAD…

With everything that is said above, we might get conflicting information about which diet to carry out. With your experience and personal findings, what have you found to be the best diet?

“The optimal diet depends on the person’s energy requirements, genetics, lifestyle, and preference. Generally, anything that helps you to lose weight and stay lean will improve your health and sleep better. Overeating even healthy food isn’t a good idea but whole foods that are minimally processed tend to be the healthiest. Most people also undereat protein, which is the most important macronutrient for improving body composition. Hyperpalatable foods that combine fats and carbs together are low in protein, which is why you tend to overeat them. Higher fiber intake will also create more satiety while keeping the overall calories low. Carbs should be calibrated based on exercise intensity and activity levels.

Skipping meals and doing some intermittent fasting has been shown to be effective for improving body composition but it also has many longevity and anti-aging benefits. That’s why I eat only 1-2 times a day and avoid snacking.”

What are the main reasons for trying to stick to such a diet?

“A high satiety diet that helps you to improve your body composition will make your body more metabolically flexible and helps to stay healthy in the modern food environment.”

Have you found any negative impacts of such eating habits? What about positive impacts?

“More energy, easier to stay lean and having more muscle makes my body burn more calories at rest.”

Would you have any advice for anyone trying to start implementing such diets?

“Focus on nutrient density and not calorie density. Chew your food properly in a low-stress environment to avoid overeating.”

To go further with biohacking

If you wish to learn more about how to master your body, develop your mind, build muscle, lose fat, get motivated, achieve your goals, get more energy and increase productivity, check out Siim’s youtube channel here. Don’t hesitate to also follow him on his socials: Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.

You can also check out his website here with an incredibly vast amount of resources with blog posts, podcasts, e-books and much more.

Tips to increase your REM sleep

Just like deep sleep, the amount of REM sleep you need varies from person to person. It will depend on what you did during your day, on your age and other factors. For example, babies spend 50% of their sleep time in REM sleep, whereas it is pretty much 20% to 25% for adults.

There are few reasons people want to increase their REM sleep. An increase in REM sleep has been shown to improve memory and general mental abilities. You may also want to extend the length of time you dream.

Sleep Cycles Circular

Get to know your sleep cycle duration and habits

If you know about your sleep habits and how your cycle evolves during your sleep, you can start planning your bedtime schedules so that you can fully and naturally benefit from REM sleep periods. Knowing that it is at the end of sleep that REM periods are the most abundant and long, it is necessary to optimize your sleep times so that these REM periods can last as much as possible before waking up.

There are a lot of trackers such as the Circular Ring that you can use to understand your sleep habits and compare the evolution of your sleep cycle.

Avoid blue lights

Turn off the TV, smartphone, tablet, computer at least 2 hours before sleep. Or even better, keep all your electronics outside the bedroom. The light that these devices emit stimulate the brain, suppress the production of melatonin (which encourages REM sleep), and interfere with your body’s biological clock.

You can use Blue-Light-Blocking glasses and softwares that auto prevents the blue color of your devices.

Optimize your sleep environment

Sleeping in a quiet, dark room and at a cool and comfortable temperature will help you make your sleep stable and durable. Noise, as well as blue light, delays the release of melatonin. It is therefore essential to cut the noise as much as possible before going to bed. Don’t listen to any sound higher than that of a human conversation. For example, if you listen to music or television, try to listen to it at a reasonable volume.

Consider using earplugs, smart lights, smart thermostats and smart bedding.

Avoid caffeine and alcohol

Do not consume caffeine or alcohol within four to six hours before bedtime.

Be intellectually active during the day

The more you use your brain during the day, the more your brain will seek to achieve REM sleep. As REM sleep is for your brain to process the information of your day, if your brain was very stimulated during the day you will spend more time in REM sleep. 

That stimulation is achieved through reading, writing, creating, learning, having social interactions…

Magnesium and Melatonin intake

Recent studies have shown that taking magnesium and melatonin with a dosage appropriate to your body can increase the duration of REM sleep. Get advise from your doctor.

How to track how much REM sleep you are getting?

You can use your Circular ring to know exactly how much REM sleep you get each night. The app gives you the details of your sleep cycle including the portion of REM sleep according to your cycles, but also the amount of REM sleep in percentage and duration of your total sleep. You can also compare your REM sleep from night to night to monitor your evolution and compare your last night with your own average to understand your sleep.

Sleep Stages Circular

If you wish to improve your Deep sleep you can also read “Tips to increase your Deep sleep”  

Sleep better and fall asleep faster

Here are some of our best tips to optimize your lifestyle and boost your level of productivity thanks to good sleep quality.

Experience both daylight and darkness

Light influences your body’s internal clock, which regulates sleep and wakefulness. Irregular light exposure can lead to disruption of circadian rhythms, making it harder to fall asleep. That’s why if you live in a country where there is not a lot of sun or winters without sun, it is normal for you to have episodes where you sleep badly. It is important to expose your body to bright light or artificial bright light during the day and sleep in a dark room at night. (Click here to know more about Circadian Rhythm)

Respect a regular schedule

The second most important tip is to follow a regular schedule. This means going to bed at the same time each night to regulate your inner clock and to wake up at the end of your sleep need. 

The Circular app can help you with that because it will analyze for you, your sleep needs and tell you at what time you should go to bed depending on your time to fall asleep and your waking up time.

Be active

If you are not already doing physical activity, be active during your day. But be careful, do not do sports too close to the time you go to bed or your system will still be stimulated and you won’t be able to fall asleep correctly. Give your system at least 3 hours before sleeping. The best time for you to train would be in the middle of the day, between 2:00 pm and 5:00 pm because it’s the time of the day when your body temperature is the highest.

Avoid digital screens

The following factor is the number one cause for extremely high falling asleep time. Digital screens are a plague for sleep and this for two main reasons. Firstly because watching something on a screen requires a lot of effort for your eyes and is very stimulating for your brain. This will make your brain think unnecessarily (even unconsciously) before and during your sleep. And secondly, because the blue light of these screens will disrupt your circadian rhythm. Basically, it will make think your inner clock that it is not time to sleep and therefore delay your sleep even if you put yourself in the dark. 

So don’t watch digital screens before sleeping. And if you really want to watch your screen, we suggest installing something to get rid of blue light, lower the brightness to the minimum and do not look at your screen in the dark but rather in a lit room. Finally do not look at your screens in your bed while lying down. Because lying in bed for a long time without sleeping will also disrupt your inner system. The gesture of lying indicates to your system that you want to sleep, so don’t miss your opportunity to sleep.

Be smart about what you eat and drink

Your nutrition has a big impact on your sleep quality. Minimizing caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine before sleeping seems logical. But less known, avoid having heavy and late dinner. Sugar and carbohydrates reduce quality of deep sleep. Prefer a light dinner, without quick sugars and red meat but with a portion of slow sugars.

Do not eat within 4 to 6 hours of the time you want to sleep. 

Create a comfortable environment of sleep. 

Don’t work too late (within 2 hours of the time you want to sleep).

Sleeping in a quiet, dark room and at a cool and comfortable temperature will help you fall sleep faster and make your sleep stable. The ideal room temperature for sleep is between 18 – 22 Celcius degrees (64.4 – 71.6 Fahrenheit degrees).

Noise, as well as blue light, delays the release of melatonin, the hormone responsible for your sleep. It is therefore essential to cut the noise as much as possible before going to bed. Don’t listen to any sound higher than that of a human conversation. For example, if you listen to music or television, try to listen to it at a reasonable volume.

Practice meditation

Meditation and relaxation practice will help improve falling asleep faster and sleep better. There is a simple but powerful breathing method called the 4-7-8 method that is used by the military and ancient yogi that will lower your heartbeat, help yo calm yourself, make you fall asleep faster, sleep better and increase your natural defenses. 

Here are the steps. Exhale completely through your nose until you completely empty your air. Close your mouth and inhale through your nose until you are completely filled with air (belly and lung) while mentally counting to four. Hold your breath and mentally count to seven. Close your mouth and exhale completely through your nose, and mentally counting to eight. If 4-7-8 is easy for you double the ratio to 8-14-16 and so on. Repeat this cycle 7 times. Do it at least three times a day, the more you do it the better it will be. 

Have a social life

It has been proven that having social interaction improve your morale and your sleep quality. 

Do not pay attention to time

People who can’t fall asleep or that wake up during the night often tend to watch the clock and are obsessed about the fact that they cannot fall asleep. But this behavior causes anxiety and that’s what you want to avoid. So get rid of any clock in your bedroom that shines in the night or forces yourself not to watch it. Even if it is tempting, watching the time is useless. In any case, you’ll have to wake up at the time you have to wake up at and looking at it won’t make you fall asleep faster.

Conclusion

The next night should be prepared during the previous day. There is a lot of parameters to take into consideration to find a good sleep quality. But you are surely already doing great on some of these factors. And if you are not, it is okay, try to apply these changes step by step.

You can also use the Circular ring to help you monitor most of its parameters and understand in detail how your sleep and your activity affect your energy to improve it sustainably.

Sleep better: external factors influencing sleep quality

Here are the most common external factors that influence sleep quality. 

Digital screens

It is the number one cause for bad sleep. Digital screens are a plague for sleep and this for two main reasons. Mainly because watching something on a screen requires a lot of effort for your eyes and is very stimulating for your brain. This will make your brain think unnecessarily (even unconsciously) before and during your sleep. And also, because the blue light of these screens will disrupt your circadian rhythm. It will make your inner clock think that it is not time to sleep and therefore delay your sleep even if you put yourself in the dark. 

Bottom line: don’t watch digital screens before sleeping. And if you really want to watch your screen, consider downloading an app (or sometimes changing your settings) to get rid of blue lights, lower the brightness to the minimum and do not look at your screen in the dark but rather in a lit room. Finally do not look at your screens in your bed while lying down. Because lying in bed for a long time without sleeping will also disrupt your inner system. The gesture of lying indicates to your system that you want to sleep, so don’t miss your opportunity.

Daylight and darkness

Light influences your body’s internal clock, which regulates sleep and wakefulness. Irregular light exposure can lead to a disruption of your circadian rhythm, making it harder to sleep well. That’s why if you live in a country where there is not a lot of sun, it is normal for you to have episodes where you sleep badly. It is important to expose your body to bright light or artificial bright light during the day as well as sleeping in a dark room at night. (Click here to know more about Circadian Rhythm)

Jet Lag

Quite obvious, but it is normal to suffer from insomnia or excessive sleepiness when traveling to a country that drastically does not live at the same time as you. Depending on whether you are traveling west or east and your Jet Lag management, it may take a few days for your body to get used to the new time zone.

Alcohol intake in the evening

At first glance, having a drink seems to be helpful to fall asleep because it makes you tired once the effects of alcohol fade. However, if alcohol usually helps you fall asleep, it disrupts the rest of the night.

Alcohol will increase the duration and frequency of awakenings in the second part of your night. It increases the duration of light sleep and it reduces deep sleep.

A single glass of wine remains okay for sleep.

Caffeine intake

Caffeine in coffee, tea, chocolate or some other drinks is not recommended to intake in the hours before bedtime.

Caffeine is a stimulating substance that reaches its highest blood level after 30 to 60 minutes and its half-life is 3 to 6 hours: in other words, it takes between 3 and 6 hours for the body to eliminate half of the caffeine ingested, the rest can last up to 14 hours in the body.

It is important not to consume coffee, tea, cola or any caffeinated beverage after 5 pm in which case caffeine will delay falling asleep, shorten total sleep time and decrease the quality of sleep.

Tobacco intake

Even if one seems to feel peace after a cigarette, nicotine is also a stimulant of the central nervous system and can delay falling asleep and make your sleep lighter. Nicotine is actually a stimulating substance that speeds up the heart rate and raises blood pressure. Moreover, when quitting smoking, sleep disturbances may manifest as insomnia. Smoking also promotes the occurrence of snoring and sleep apnea. Smokers would be 2.5 times more likely to suffer from OSA (obstructive sleep apnea syndrome) than non-smokers. Read about Sleep disorders classification.

Heavy and late meal

The quality of sleep is linked to a multitude of factors among which nutrition is a key factor.

Even if we may think that sleeping just after eating is a good idea because we will use the fatigue of digestion to sleep faster, in the end, it may be destructive.

A laborious digestion is the first thing to avoid, and for a simple reason. Digestion and sleep are two completely different activities for your body that will have a hard time doing both at the same time. On one side you’re asking your body to let go and relax while on the other side your entire body is engaging into heavy activity to digest.

Of course the digestion time and effort depends on the composition of your meals. This is why you must avoid eating heavy foods that are hard to digest before bedtime. Avoid evening meals that are rich in greasy meats, calories and vitamin C. Sugar and carbohydrates reduce the quality of deep sleep.

Moreover, the lying position promotes gastric reflux and burning sensations. It is not an ideal position to digest. As a general rule, you should wait for four to six hours after the end of dinner before going to bed.

Some medication and drugs intake

Taking amphetamine drugs, corticosteroids, anti-tuberculosis, antihistamines, as well as prescription medications including beta blockers, alpha blockers, and some antidepressants can affect the good quality of sleep.

Physical activity before sleep

Physical exercise is well known for the feeling of relaxation and well-being it can provide, especially after a grueling workout. Nevertheless working out before sleep time may not be good for the quality of your sleep. Indeed, practicing a sport just before bedtime can cause insomnia (especially if it’s a heavy effort).

During sleep, the temperature of the body drops. While when you exercise, the temperature of your body increases. There are several ways to regulate the temperature of our body, the most effective being respiration. However, its cooling action is not immediate. Therefore, by practicing a physical activity shortly before bedtime, the temperature of your body will be high and you may have trouble falling asleep.

Moreover, during physical activities, the body releases hormones into the bloodstream that keep us awake and alert. If this is beneficial during a sport session, it can be a problem when you will try to sleep. You may lose long hours of sleep waiting for your hormone levels to drop.

However a walk before sleep is quite recommended.

Intellectual activity before sleep

If you want to have a good night’s sleep, it is really not the time to get your brain thinking too much in the evening, and it is not a good time either to tackle the issues that get you angry and frustrated.

The risk of intellectual activity before sleeping, is to not being successful in letting your ideas go and get your brain to unconsciously try to solve your problems before sleeping. And this is very bad. It might get you angry and delay  your sleep even more. 

So consider relaxing activities that don’t need your brain to think too hard.

The culture and the country where you live 

Living in a stressful environment (job, social, politic, economic) determines our pace of life and the environment in which we live. So many factors that are beyond our control can affect our sleep negatively.

Your environment of sleep 

Sleeping in a quiet, dark room and at a cool and comfortable temperature will help you sleep faster. 

When you start to fall asleep the temperature of your body drops. The body becomes more sensitive to high temperatures and it can disturb your sleep very easily. That’s why the ideal room temperature for sleep is between 18 – 22 Celcius degrees (64.4 – 71.6 Fahrenheit).

Noise, as well as blue light, delay the release of melatonin, the hormone responsible for your sleep. It is therefore essential to cut any noise as much as possible before going to bed. Don’t listen to any sound higher than that of a human conversation. For example, if you listen to music or television, try to listen to it at a reasonable volume.

Also, the comfort of your bed can influence your sleep. The greater the feeling of comfort, the better sleep will be.

Pain and Sickness

It is obvious that physical pain and sickness will influence the quality of your sleep and can cause sleep debt. Consider practicing relaxation techniques, such as deep abdominal breathing. In extreme case, you can use pain killers and/or sleeping pills under the supervision of a doctor.

The Full Moon

Full moon can be a mess for some people. Scientists have reported an average of 25-minute decreasing sleep time during the full moon coupled with less deep sleep. However they also found an increase in the duration of REM sleep of 30 minutes. During this lunar phase, the release of melatonin decreases. In recent years, specialists accumulate the results in favor of a lunar influence on sleep, even if failing to have solid tracks of explanations.

Conclusion

Indeed, there are many external factors that can disturb our sleep. But most of them can easily be fixed once you have identified them. If you identify several causes for your poor sleep, do not try to fix everything at once. Go little by little.

If you feel that you have issues sleeping because of stress or anxiety, you can read “How to get rid of stress and anxiety”

The benefits and risks of polyphasic sleep

“Polyphasic” sleep is a natural way of sleep for young children. It consists in distributing your core sleep in several parts. We are not talking about a simple nap here. There are several ways to practice polyphasic sleep depending on your lifestyle. There are well-known programs that have their own community, fan pages, dedicated books and research papers. You may already have heard about the “Uberman” (no relation to the taxi company) or the “Everyman” program.

Monophasic and Polyphasic Sleep Circular

The advantages

We might want to first ask why people would force themselves to sleep in another way. It is said that many great people like Thomas Alva Edison, Nikola Tesla, Leonardo Da Vinci, many presidents, sailors and artists practiced or currently practice polyphasic sleep. The advantages (not scientific) of using polyphasic sleep is first and foremost to free time to achieve one’s projects by reducing sleep time and benefiting from a boosted productivity flow by taking advantage of more frequent sleeping periods.

Some would say it’s a miracle, transforming yourself in some sort of supernatural being that sleeps only a few hours while achieving great amounts of work.

Yes but…

The disadvantages

This type of sleep is not made for everyone. First of all, it does not fit with everyone’s way of life and work. But more importantly, when someone embarks on this kind of sleep, it is all of his biology that is disturbed. You have to be mentally and physically strong to be able to stand the change and be very methodical to last on the long term. You also have to be someone who naturally doesn’t need a lot of sleep, because these programs can make you sleep deprived.

It is not in a couple of days that you will succeed going from the socially accepted monophasic sleep to a polyphasic schedule, the process can take quite some time. The adaptation period of the brain to this new structure of sleep can be very long and painful. And while you adapt your daily life to the realization of this sleep structure, you will feel more and more distant from society because your lifestyle will be radically different. Loneliness is not always something easy to handle.

That is why only determined people guided by a project can achieve it.

Conclusion 

Only very few people can sleep so little in the long term and still maintain their regular level of productivity. There are lucky souls who don’t need much sleep. These people can do with as little as four to six hours of sleep per day. So if you are not part of this group, we strongly advise against trying polyphasic sleep on a long period of time.

A more detailed article on polyphasic sleep will be available soon.

Scientific sources:

  • In short photoperiods, human sleep is biphasic. THOMAS A. WEHR
  • Sleep We Have Lost: Pre-industrial Slumber in the British Isles.  A. ROGER EKIRCH
  • The Effects of Polyphasic and Ultrashort Sleep Schedules. CLAUDIO STAMPI

Picture: Armel Le Cléac’h : V. CURUTCHET/BPCE – Marc Guillemot : JEAN-MARIE LIOT/DPPI